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Nut (fruit)

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True nutsEdit

[1][2]The common hazelnut, native to Europe and Western Asia[3][4]A kola nutThe following are both culinary and botanical nuts.

Nut-like drupe seedsEdit

A drupeis a fleshy fruit surrounding a stone, or pit, containing a seed. Some of these seeds are culinary nuts as well. [5][6]Smoked almonds*Almonds (Prunus dulcis) have a long and important history of religious, social and cultural significance as a food.[28] Speculated to have originated as a natural hybrid in Central Asia, almonds spread throughout the Middle East in ancient times and thence to Eurasia. The almond is one of only two nuts mentioned in the Bible.[29]

  • ApriNut sweet apricot kernels
  • Australian cashew nut (Semecarpus australiensis) is a source of food for Australian aboriginal people of north-eastern Queensland and Australia's Northern Territory.[30]
  • Betel or areca nuts (Areca catechu) are chewed in many cultures as a psychoactive drug.[31] They are also used in Indian cuisine to make sweet after-dinner treats (mukwa) and breath-fresheners (paan masala).[32]
  • Canarium spp.
    • Canarium nut (Canarium harveyi, Canarium indicum, or Canarium commune) has long been an important food source in Melanesia.[34]
    • Chinese olive (Canarium album) pits are processed before use as an ingredient in Chinese cooking.[35]
    • Pili nuts (Canarium ovatum) are native to the Philippines, where they have been cultivated for food from ancient times.[36]
  • Chilean hazel (Gevuina avellana), from an evergreen native to South America, similar in appearance and taste to the hazelnut.[39]
  • Coconut (Cocos nucifera), used world-wide as a food. The fleshy part of the seed is edible, and used either desiccated or fresh as an ingredient in many foods. The pressed oil from the coconut is used in cooking as well.[40]
  • Gabon nut (Coula edulis) has a taste comparable to hazelnut or chestnut. It is eaten raw, grilled or boiled.[41]
  • Hickory (Carya spp.)
    • Mockernut hickory (Carya tomentosa), named after the heavy hammer (moker in Dutch) required to crack the heavy shell and remove the tasty nutmeat.[42]
    • Pecans (Carya illinoinensis) are the only major nut tree native to North America.[43] Pecans are eaten as a snack food, and used as an ingredient in baking and other food preparation.
    • Shagbark hickory (Carya ovata) has over 130 named cultivars. They are a valuable source of food for wildlife, and were eaten by Native American nations and settlers alike.[44]
    • Shellbark hickory (Carya laciniosa) nuts are sweet, and are the largest of the hickories. They are also eaten by a wide variety of wildlife.[45]
  • Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.), cultivated for thousands of years, native to West Asia and Asia Minor.[49]
  • Walnut (Juglans spp.)
    • Black walnut (Juglans nigra), also popular as food for wildlife, with an appealing, distinctive flavor. Native of North America. [50]
    • Butternut (Juglans cinerea) (or white walnut) is native to North America. Used extensively, in the past, by Native American tribes as food.[51]
    • English walnut (Juglans regia) (or Persian walnut) was introduced to California around 1770. California now represents 99% of US walnut growth.[52] It is often combined with salads, vegetables, fruits or desserts because of its distinctive taste.
    • Heartnut, or Japanese walnut (Juglans aitlanthifolia), native to Japan, with a characteristic cordate shape.[53] Heartnuts are often toasted or baked, and can be used as a substitute for English walnuts.

Nut-like gymnosperm seedsEdit

[7][8]Pine nuts are edible gymnosperm seeds.A gymnosperm, from the Greek gymnospermos (γυμνόσπερμος), meaning "naked seed", is a seed that does not have an enclosure. The following gymnosperms are culinary nuts. All but the ginkgo nut are from evergreens.

    • Burrawang nut (Macrozamia communis), a major source of starch for Australian aboriginal people around Sydney.[55]
  • Ginkgo nuts (Ginkgo biloba) are a common ingredient in Chinese cooking. They are starchy, low in fat, protein and calories, but high in vitamin C.[56]
  • Araucaria spp.
    • Bunya nut (Araucaria bidwillii) is native to Queensland, Australia. Nuts are the size of walnuts, and rich in starch.[57]
    • Monkey-puzzle nut (Araucaria araucana) has nuts twice the size of almonds. Rich in starch. Roasted, boiled, eaten raw, or fermented in Chile and Argentina.[57]
    • Paraná pine nut (Araucaria angustifolia) (or Brazil pine nut) is an edible seed similar to pine nuts.[58]
  • Pine nuts (Pinus spp.) Pine nuts can be toasted and added to salads and are used as an ingredient in pesto, among other regional uses.
    • Chilgoza pine (Pinus gerardiana), common in Central Asia. Nuts are used raw, roasted or in confectionary products.[59]
    • Colorado pinyon (Pinus edulis), in great demand as an edible nut, with average annual production of 454 to 900 tonnes.[60]
    • Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis), a pine-nut yielding species native to Asia.[61]
    • Mexican pinyon (Pinus cembroides), found in Mexico and Arizona. Nuts are eaten raw, roasted, or made into flour.[62]
    • Single-leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) grows in foothills from Mexico to Idaho. Eaten as other pine nuts. Also sometimes ground and made into pancakes.[63]
    • Stone pine, or pignolia nut (Pinus pinea) is the most commercially important pine nut.[61]

Nut-like angiosperm seedsEdit

[9][10]Macadamia nuts are edible angiosperm seeds.These culinary nuts are seeds contained within a larger fruit.

  • Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) are harvested from an estimated 250,000–400,000 trees per year. Highly valued edible nut used in the confectionery and baking trades.[33] Excellent dietary source of selenium.[64]
  • Macadamia (Macadamia spp.) are primarily produced in Hawai'i and Australia. Both species are native to Australia. They are a highly valued edible nut. Waste nuts are commonly used to extract an edible oil.[33]
    • Macadamia nut (Macadamia tetraphylla) has a rough shell, and is the subject of some commercialization.[65]
    • Queensland macadamia nut (Macadamia integrifolia) has a smooth shell, and is the principal commercial macadamia nut.[65]

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