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1985 Sylîa PERMACULTURE INSTITUTE PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK (Revised and updated 1985)

This handbook is an outline for the standard 72-hour permaculture design course; it is intended as a guide only, and instructors should greatly amplify the contents. It is not necessary to teach the course in the sequence presented herein, as long as the major subjects are covered. Issued by: The Permaculture Institute Editors: E3il! Mollison, Reny Slay, Andrew Jeeves Illustrations'. Andrew Jeeves, Reny Slay Permaculture Design COURSE Handbook Zone 1 home centre herbs, vegetable garden mostly structures very intensive start at back steps

Zone 2 intensively cultivated well-maintained mainly grafted and selected species dense planting use stacking, storeys some animals, chickens, pigeons, ducks, quail multi-purpose walks, collect eggs, milk, distribute greens, scraps Zone 3 connect to Zone 1 and 2 for easy access may add goats, geese, sheep, bees plant hardy trees and bush species ungrafted for later selection, later grafting animal forage self-forage systems, poultry forest etc. windbreaks, firebreaks spot mulching, rough mulching trees protected with cages, strip fencing nut tree forests Zone 4 long term development timber for building timber for firewood watering minimal feeding minimal some introduced animals: cattle, deer, pigs Zone 5 uncultivated wilderness natural regeneration timber hunting Species, elements and strategies change in each zone Permaculture Design Course Handbook WEB OF LIFE

Net of functional Relationaships Design/Ecosystem SINK Diversity is related to stability. It is not, however, the number of diverse elements you can pack into a system, but rather the useful connections you can make between these elements. From source to sink: - diversity increases. - energy stores increase - organisational complexity increases. The Chaos or Disorder Princiale : If resources are added beyond the capacity of the system to productively use them, then that system becomes disordered (goes into chaos) Odum Chaos or disorder is the opposite of harmony, as competition is the opposite of co-operation. in disorder, much useful energy is cancelled out by the use of opposing energy, thus creating entropy or bound energy. Society, gardens, whole systems and human lives are wasted in disorder and opposition. The aim of the designer is therefore two-fold: • To use only that amount of energy that can be productively :absorbed by the system. -To build harmony, as cooperation, into the functional organi-saticn of the syster.;. Methodologies of design Permaculture design emphasises patterning of landscape, function, and species assemblies. It asks the question, "Where does this (element) go? How is it placed for maximum benefit in the system?" Permaculture is made up of techniques and strategies: • Techniques : concerned With How to do Things (one-Dimensionally) e.g. organic gardening. • strategies : concerned with how and when ;twc-Uimension;:.i} e.g. Fukuoka system. • Design : CGtiC°rnP:: with, pa:i°rr;ng (multi-dimensional)) e.g. permaculture. Approaches to Design PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE Handbookk DSOC:K • ; 1 ) Maps ('AM ;ere is everything?") • (2) Analysis of elements ("How do these things connect?") • (3) Sector planning ("Where do we put things?") • (4) Observational ' * (5) Experiential 1. Maps (be careful "the map is not the territory") Sequence of maps valuable to see clearly where to place many elements Clear overlays to plan: Access - Water - Buildings - Topology 2. Analysis of Elements An analytic approach: list the needs, products, and the intrinsic characteristics of each element. This is done on paper. Lists are made to try to supply (by some other element in the system) the needs of any particular element Example would be that of the chicken: Needs are:

  • food ~ water
  • shelter * protection

x dust " grit

  • air * control ~troi * other chickens

Products are.

  • manure * eggs
  • heat * gas
  • meat * feathers

_intrinsic factors: breed characteristics (colqur, ranging habits) unique factors Experiment, pap:;;, connecting and combining the elements (buildings, plants, animals etc.) to achieve no rolluiicn. (excess of product), ard minimum work. Try lo have one element fulfill the needs of another element 3. Sector planning Sector planning inc!udes (a) zones, (b) sector, (c) slope, (d) orientation ZONES !t is useful to consider the site as a series of zones, which can be concentric riings, a single pathway through the system, star -Lina with the home centre and working cut. The placement of elements in each zone depends on importance, priorities, and numerical visits needed for each e!emer,t, e.g. a chicken house is visited every day, so it needs to be close (but not necessarily next to the house). A herb garden would be clos to the kltchen

Permaculture DESIGN COURSE hiANDSCO,-' SECTORS The aim of sector planning is to channel external energies (wind, sun, fire) into or away from the system The zone and sector factors together regulate the placement of particular plant species and structures SLOPE

Placement of an element on slope so that gravity is used to maximum capacity: water storage, mulch and other materials (kick-down), cold air fail, warm air rise ORIENTATION Placement of an element so that it faces sunside or shadeside depending on its function and needs 4. Observational Free thinking or thematic thinking (e.g. on blackberry or bracken.) a. note phenomena b. infer (make guesses) c. investigate (research) d. devise a strategy 5. Experiential Become conscious of yourself, feelings environment Can be free-conscious or thematically conscious. Zazen - walking without thinking, unreflective PUTTING ,, IT TOGETHER: Use all the m eth odologies of design Select: elements - pattern assembly place elements - pattern relationship PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK SECTION 3. PATTERN IN DESIGN The world is a sequence of events within a pattern. All things spiral through the pattern. In pattern application, there are two aspects: the perception of the patterns that already exist (and how these function), and the imposition of pattern on sites in order to achieve specific needs Zone and sector planning are examples of pattern application A. Edge effects and harmonics Edge effect: the interface between two ecosystems represents a third, more complex system which combines both. The interface, or edge, receives more light, nutrients and so is more productive Harmonics and area: increase in linear effects while the area is constrained:

III IIg ' `

- _ pond • •p' ~' r~ a

blueberry


Productivity increases as shape of the pond is changed to produce more "margin", or edge. It may almost double the number of plants around the edge, and, as fish are mainly marginal feeders, so may be able to double the number of fish Other examples of patterning with edge include. - • Circle garden rather than linear garden, save space and water • Trellis in zig-zag pattern rather than straight • Crops planted in strips and contours, with companion crop in between • (crops receive more light for photosynthesis and yield is high for both) • Windbreak can be planted either to deflect wind or to funnel it into a gap for wind power • Gardens can make use of 'keyhole' pattern to maximise space and yield strips

HERB SPIRAL Sprinkler ' Straight line 01 „ planting


CIRCLE GARDEN Saves: Space Water Mulch ]ants TRELLIS ZIG-ZAG

Countour planting maximises edge & productivity Species edge possibilities are determined by whether plants/animals are compatible, e,g. wheat planted with lucerne (alfalfa) will increase yield, while yields decrease if planted with brassica B. Flow Patterns PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK wind tunnels in at FLOW PATTERN increasing speed crops e.g. FLOW PATTERN


sunflower wet/cold low pressure increase speed of scour Aboriginal tribal song pattern shows a map of the desert, with wadis and salt-bushes. Pattern and song are used together to find one's way in a desert landscape SECTION 4. CLASSICAL LANDSCAPE PROFILES flood plain

Can use pattern in river flow to scour deep ponds, to accumulate mulch on edges, and to build up a layer of silt. Mulch and silt accumulates during the flood phase of the river, but trees must be planted to catch this accumulation

A. The Humid Landscape Humid landscapes (tropical or temperate) are gently rounded due to forces of water on substrata. This classical profile decides our whole strategy in water and structural placements, forests, soils, frost, fire and crops High Point: • collection area for precipitation • mists and humid air • wide bald ridges may be grazed, but narrow ridges should be forested • collection of water as ridge, plateau and saddle dams Upper Slopes:

• instability of soils greater than 18° slopes or less in fragile soils • forests as stabilising mechanism • forests as warming system for cold air flow • collection of water as plateau or contour dams, as power source Key Point: • critical water control point for lower slope irrigation • diversion drains to keypoint permaculture DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK • irrigation canals out from keypoint to ridges • cultivation below keypoint • links from keypoint to keypoint along keyline • housing suited to this area or just below, with forest above • clean water above, soiled water below Lower Slopes: • mixed cultivation area, crops • terracing and mini-terraces Keyline System of Water Control: • dams at saddles or skyline • contour, ridge point and plateau edge dams. Each dam may have two or three channels in or out • diversion channels (types and slopes; lockpipes, siphons; slope pipelines, terrace lines; head and tail channels, hardware, diversion pipes, flags and sprinklers.) • Spillways (construction and contouring) • Irrigation (types and uses; drip irrigation) Selection of keypoint in major landscape plan: • laying out the keyline system: multiple dams and channels • diversion to keypoint • reverse siphon; siphon and obligatory points • diversion to keypoint • irrigation from keypoint Chisel plough or soil conditioning in keyline: • principle of soil reconditioning • the soil as the main water storage system • effects of conditioning on soil: air, temperature, life (worms, bacteria), ph, minerals, plant growth Treatment of individual slopes:

® shallow pit 1. Steep and stony slopes: net and pan structures 2. Steep and grassy: planting shelves, houses, livestock, valley and ridge; mulch an shelves NET & PAN SYSTEM 3. Very steep: classical intensive terrace • General schematic of flow-down and kick-down systems • Use the ideal species as slopes descend to deep soils • Ridge top plantings in cool and hot climates • Fire control on slopes • Mini-catchment runnel Flatlands • Irrigation layouts and techniques • Mulch on flat • Swale interception of run-off (groundwater build-uq) e.g. Village Homes, Davis, California PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE .handbook • Swales in forest, especially off-garden • Spiral earth bank designs and use of earth banks • Flatland check dams. Earthworks and earthbanks B. The Arid _Landscape Important desert strategy is to have many little systems going, all designed to catch and store water. Water must be stored in ground or underground • Placement of human habitation, animal shelter, manurial flow • Use of sunny cliff sites • Checkdams: floodflow irrigation, holding banks stable • Road run-off techniques • Mulch-traps in desert • Floodplain treatment in deserts (Navaho and Zuni techniques) • Slopes and run-off catchment • Use of basketry and woven mulch • Evaporation loss and moisture bar • Shade and shadehouse • Special treatment of showers, water, run-off scour holes (possible water)

scarp animals in there

niche (limiting factor in desert is shade) peneplain WADI


waterhole lust before watertall water flow in storm fresh water flow ! 'v PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE handbook rains falling in the hills come down hard and flood along y gulleys & rivers `~. . swales - water soaks in & builds up the water table gypsum or sodium bicarbonate cut in clay rock & cement dam in gulley water


swales lay a rock apron so that water wont undercut dam water leaks out dam silt 2f1. dam will back up a lot of CHECK water DAMS "7 STONEY DESERT STRATEGY (SWALES)

Stoney mounds hold back the water temporarily dune tree

COLLECTION PANS - thin sheet of water running across the country

these areas are deepened and a tree is planted TECHNIQUE USED BY THE NABOTEANS C. Minor Landscapes: volcanic, high & low islands, coasts, wetlands, estuaries 1. Volcanic Islands • Rich soil, range of crops almost unlimited • Types of lava: pahoehoe rock lava - good only for run-off u'u pumice-like with lots of holes. Can be planted in 2. High Islands • Are either granite or basalt • Humid to arid aspects • Keyline, ridge dams, terraces • Rockwall and cave shelters • Rich flora and fauna • Importance of winds and rainfall • Lagoon catchments and shorelines • Special problems: cyclone and tsunami, cinder flow, volcanisms standing cloud and moisture if forest is not cut

wet side earthquake, mudflow, lava flow, clean water dam made after siltation has occured so that no sill comes through pavement river trees planted in swales dam smaller paddock (ie sunflowers planted after rain) trees always grow on the dunes not on thedesert pavement.Rain reuns of the pavement into the dunes; forms a freshwater lens


permaculture DESIGN COURSE handbook 3. Low Islands • Are usually arid islands • Need essential foreshore plantings • Need essential windbreaks • Bi-modal and bi-directional winds • Caliche or platin - removal techniques necessary (mulch pits) • Gley for tanks (species of plants) • Atoll structures in lagoons

internal forest 4. Coasts • Need front-line vegetation so that beach is not undermined • Salt-resistant front-line species, e.g. (casuarina, coprosma) have waxy or needle leaves • Establishing plants in sand: sawdust and paper lowers pH and hold moisture. Chinese plant in woven baskets to hold in moisture -Sand-blast resistant: thick bark or very fibrous barked trees (pines and palms, casuarinas) • The alkaline sand needs humus, soluble sulphates and oxides offset alkalinity • Deficiencies in zinc, copper, iron (non-soluble in alkaline) 5. Wetlands • Chinampa system - world's most productive agriculture, using banks next to water, maximises productive edge. Swampy or marshy land idea( for this development. System of water/land nutrient exchange in harmonic effect. (Mexico and Thailand) • Ducks (main livestock) cycle nutrients; return potash to water and land • Fish are marginal feeders Azolla is a fern which contain Anabeana

crop adjust duck to suit (nitrogen fixing bacteria); can be scooped up land crop and used as a mulch on land • Trellis crop over water saves space can be harvested by small boat • Occasionally streams are drained and nitrogen-rich mud scooped onto banks • Marshes and wetlands support rich yields of wild rice (Zizania aquatica), freshwater mussels, fish, and honey-producing species (marsh marigold) 6. Estuaries • Rich species area (oyster, fish; sea-grass, molluscs, fowl, geese) • Sea-grass (Zostera) good insulation • Can make traps and high-tide ponds for catching or rearing fish, molluscs • Spartina: mulch, catches silt from land, good fodder, returns nutrient from sea to land (Further information in Section 12. aquaculture and Mariculture) salcorma.a ea grass cordgrass, important for fisheries +--


/ oysters zostera posidonia, seaweed or eelgrass 12 PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE handbook CLIMATIC DIFFERENCES Three very basic divisions: Cold/Hot/Dry or Temperate/Tropical/Desert Temperate Soil contains nutrients and elements, cultivation cautiously possible; natural mulch develops. Mulch (humus) either as applied on top of soil (small areas) or cut/grazed in cycles for larger areas. Amount of humus in soil determines fertility. Smaller fields with deep rooted deciduous trees ensures nutrient cycling plus new nutrients, but best strategy for cropping is "no-tillage" cultivation Tropical Plants hold 80-90% of nutrients, clean cultivation in the European mode a disaster. No mulch develops under forest. Biomass is critical. Bare soil leads to development of concrete-like layer below 3 metres of soil (caliche), later erosion. Strategies: nitrogenous ground cover may be critical precursor to agriculture (Desmodium, Sesbiana, Dolichos) e.g. barleyldolichos mixture is ideal, as is Desmodium under a tree crop. Problems may be summer or winter dry periods and water competition. This is solved by use of drip irrigation, selective grazing in advanced tree crops. 4-6 large trees/acre (Acacia albida, Leucaena) in crop as nutrient-recycling strategy. Essential to incorporate as much tree crop as possible otherwise, waterculture, e.g. paddy rice, where nutrient is bound to algae and mud. Also essential to replace low-nutrition plants (lettuce) with high-nutrition tropical plants (kangkong, edible chrysanthemums, hibiscus spp. etc.) Desert Nutrients plentiful, but need humus and water for release. Must concentrate on soil cycle, plant cycle, and water cycle in arid environments. Desert strategies are basically water-connected, great attention must be paid to 'waste water' use in mulch, floodflow and runoff techniques. Deep-rooted trees need mulch plus drip irrigation in establishment. Mulch can be planted in deserts as legumes, tamarisk, casuarinas Of all of these, tropics and deserts most demand care and management. In temperate zones trees demand increased organic material in the soil SECTION 5 SOILS A Soil analysis and interpretation - pH scale 12 71 10 9 8 Ph scale: 10 times more acid/alkaline for each number


12 1- washing soda - lye alkaline high rainfall red on litmus paper

good 'g garden ` soil 17 ... 8 add • sulphur 9 acid 1 F battery acid 70 low rainfall blue on litmus paper 11 stomach acid vinegar no live fish, very few plants neutral typical dryland soil bicarbonate of soda 1Q permaculture DESIGN COURSE handbook B Creation of humus in soil, can be done through addition of mulch, compost, vegetation, food scraps, manures, animal skins and bones, etc etc. May take 2-4 years to build up good garden soil. Humus solves the problems of too acid and too alkaline C Difficult Soils Alkaline areas expected in deserts, coasts and alkaline rocks. Acid areas expected in wetlands, bogs, high rainfall, uplands, siliceous rocks. Species suited to alkaline areas are mesquites, locusts, carobs, some pines. Species suited to acid areas are oaks, pines, blueberries Platin soil: islands - atolls and desert coasts. 18" deep a layer of calcium triphosphate, hard as concrete. Strategy: break up the platin layer, stuff with humus, and plant tree. Tree continues to break up piatin, and release phosphate nutrients Caliche: tropical equivalent of platin. Hills. Ferric silicate composition lies I - 1.5 metres below soil, often in rainforest. Best to leave forest as is Non-wetting: dryland areas - water rolls off. Caused by algal-fungal association which produces wax. Strategy: can be mulched (for small areas); mixed with clay or a commercial gel Clay: drainage problem. Mix with gypsum to help seepage (2 metres penetration), can also use gels to hold water SECTION 6. DESIGN FOR CATASTROPHE Best strategy for design is to learn climatic and landform history of area and site. Use commonsense in siting houses, gardens to avoid major catastrophe, and design buildings to withstand such external energies A. FIRE Criteria for fire control: • Plant firebreaks of fire-resistent plant species • Use plant species with little or no litter crop • Damp mulched gardens • Mulch pit and swales systems • Ponds • Use succulent ground covers, e.g. ice plant • Use foraging animals to clean or rake up litter (e.g. "raked" soil of chickens) • Paving of stone or tile driveways Criteria for plant species to assist fire control: • Species having a high ash content (least combustible material) • Species which develop least dry litter as fuel • Species which burn slowly and which are self extinguishing • Along roads and around houses are low-carpeting species • Species which will extinguish (by competition) annual grasses that flash in fire • Species that are easy to propagate by cuttings, divisions, runners, or offsets so that carpeting species and hedges are easy to develop • Species which are not summer deciduous • Summer green species, even where root stock or fruity parts die off in winter • Species which are heavy with large water storage; !ow fats, oils, or turpenes • Species which are preferably of use as forage for bees, birds and small animals i4


Strategies for saving house in case of fire • Gutters cleaned of leaves; or type of gutter that catches water, not leaves • Fine screening on window (in case of sparks) • Put a tennis ball into the downpipe and fill gutters with water • No bushes against the house • White painted, wooden houses best • Have a tank or pond at hcuse (all water pipes break during a fire) • Rake up all leaves 100 feet around the house • Fire comes up hill with greatest; force so don't locate house on the ridge (have two fronts to fight) • Keep larger, burnable trees upslope behind house B. FLOOD, EARTH-MOVEMENTS No cure once house is sited in wrcng spot. Must make sure not to site on flood-plain (even if floods occur only once e-very 50 years) and don't put houses below deforested slopes (mud-slides) CYCLONE, HURRICANE • Site in sheltered place even underground • Use bamboo as a shelter; bends in the wind rather than breaks • House design very important: high-pitched roof, angles, cut stud into brace • Have a back-up'famine garden n very sheltered area permaculture TUBE DESIGN COURSE HANDEOC,•: D. TSUNAMI • Site main house and garden far enough away from tsunami area (which occurs as frequently as every 15 years;: but can have 'temporary' shack or smaller house near beach SECTION 7. BUILDING AND STRUCTURES A. The temperate to sub-tropical house (Latitudes 30-60°) Essential elements: • Orientation of axis to sun • Insulation and draft-proofing • High thermal mass • Ventilation • Insulated ground under house • Heat banks • Cold banks and wall shading • Attached greenhous/shacehouse/water tanks • Function and aspect of rooms (bedrooms on shade side, living and functional rooms on sun side) B. The tropical house (Latitudes 0-3° Essential elements: • Orientation to winds • Shade on wails, valley shade, tree shade • Reduction of mass • Venting and air flow ducts • Trellis and shadehouse • Air scoops • Tanks and cisterns • Insect screening • Guttering and rain catc,nmert C. The desert house permaculture design course handbook • Underground • Patio structure • Shadehouse • Insulation • Trellis • Windbreaks • Underground water tanks D. Special houses • Houseboat • Bio-shelter (plant house) • Earth houses • Cave house • Pond housing, reflective systems • Flat land, earth-bermed house E. Plantina around houses • Suntrap • Windbreak • Wall trellis: shade/heat'. summer-winter use of deciduous and evergreen plants • Roof trellis F. Fencing types ard locat ons -Wall - stone arc earth • Hedges - live fences • Combination ditch/hedge • Trellis types (linear, radial, catenary) • Woven • Railed G. Integration of functions in homes • Mud room and processing centre (saves money for individual and community) • Commerce and light industry n home (alleviates social deprivation for many women with young children. saves mcney in petrol; good working conditions) SECTION 8. APPROPRIATE ENERGY CONSERVING TECHNOLOGY (For further information, see "Energy Paper I" and "Energy Paper 2" by Bill Mollison Permaculture Institute (Australia) 1. Domestic Conservation of domestic energy may be achieved by a set ot strategies applied in combination and suited to specific sites and climates. Strategy sets are: • Behavioural: active time of day, best use of natural daylight, and choice of clothing for climate • House design house must be designed for climate, utilising energy- conserving siting, use of plants ard use of structures such as greenhouse, shadehouse, ponds etc. • Technological: energy generation and choice of appliances _Categories for technological strategies are: • Glimate control: space heating • Cooking and cook-stoves • Hot water supplies • Electricity and lighting • Washing and drying clothes • Refrigeration and cooling • Water conservation A. Climate control: space heatinq and cooling PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK • Radiant heat (heats solid objects; massive stove are slow to heat and cool; burn fuel at high temperatures; use small sticks & short burning time) • Conducted heat (usually large under--floor systems using water pipes or electrical wires connected to waste heat) • Convective heat (cast-iron stoves) • Greenhouse; shadehouse • Trellis; air vents B. Cooking and _cookstoves • Wood-fueled (with hot water supply) • Bottled gas, kerosene • Haybox cooking (insulated container) • Solar cooking C. Hot water. supplies • Hose on rcef • Bread-box collector • Solid collec:crs • Cylindrical collectors • Solar ponds • Trough collectors • Flat-plate collectors Electricity and 'crr-g • Photovoltaics • Hydro-electric power • Wind power • Gas & kerosene lighting • Energy-conserving IiGh;s E. Washina and drying clothes • Hand-operated pressure washers ~ers • Coin-operated washing machines shared by community • Drying: airy and roofed (preferably fibreglass) area • Drying in insulated cupboard surrounding uninsulated hot water cylinder F. Refrigeration and cooling; food drying • Photovoltaics - Sun chimneys • Gas and ;<ercsene • Fans G. Water conservation • Water tanK off roof, ideally located uphill from house • Hand-basin water to toilet • Compost toilets • Dual-flush toilets 2. Hydraulic Systems • Pumps and waterlifts • Hydraulic rams and pumps • Hydro-pneumatics (air compression • Water turbines • Water wheels • Harnessing tide or stream flow permaculture i URE DESIGN COURSE HZ 3. Biothermal Systems • Woodlots • Gasification • Pyrolysis • Biogas • Compost heat (the Jean Pain system) • Metabolic heat • Vegetable oils 4. Solar-Powered Devices • Photovoltaic cells • Swimming pools • Solar ponds • Solar chimneys 5. Wind-Powered Devices • Fan mills • Wind kettles • Blade and propeller mills • Savonious rotors SECTION 9. FORESTS AND TREES TREES AS ENERGY -FANSDUCERS: Wind, Sun, and Rainfall Wind


1. 40% of incoming wind is forced through the trees, friction causes heat inside the forest ~;no frost). Outside trees have thicker trunks due to wind force; inner trunks are thinner 100-200 YDS 2. Wind brings in dust and ACROSS insects; at edge of forest there is fallout of these, so forest at wind edge receives more 'fertiliser'. Rain runoff also more plentiful at windward edge (high pressure of wind keeps the moisture in) 3. 60% of wind is forced up over the trees forms and falls as Ekman spirals. Rain is caused by spirals if there is any moisture in the air. Trees can cause the moisture to drop because of the upward, forced spirailing of the wind. The spirals change direction depending on hemisphere (to the left in southern hemisphere) Light 1. Light is absorbed, transmitted :hrough or reflected by the tree, depending on trunk colour, leaf shape and colour and canopy (arc also depending on climate) 2. Light absorption is mainly on crown for photosynthesis. A high light absorption tree is a radiator and is mainly found in low heat conditions (temperate climates) 3. Light reflection is also on the crown (in dense plantings) or all over the tree in the form PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK of silver leaves. A reflecting tree is a light 'producer' and is usually in low light conditions. In trees where bark is white, heat is reflected away from the trunk 4. Transmitted light is red light, stimulates root growth Rain 1. Impact on crown causes some immediate evaporation (but in a dense planting, there is no impact on the ground, and so prevents erosion under the trees) 2. Each leaf is wetted; no water falls through the crown until all leaves are wet - tree intercepts rain 3. Throughfall - water begins to drip off the leaves, towards the branches and trunk. Water now contains nutrients (dust, insects, plants nutrients) 4. Canopy drip feeds the surface roots; trunk drip feeds deeper ladder or tap root systems. Function of tap roots is mainly mining. Minerals are brought up to leaves and then washed off during rain to be used by the surface feeding roots 5. Litter under tree impedes water absorption (three inches of litter holds one inch water). Roots are then able to absorb what they need before water infiltrates the ground 6. Infiltration - water coats all the soil crumbs (the tree roots can also soak the water up from the soil crumbs.) 7. When ground reaches field capacity or saturation, water then slowly percolates to groundwater area Transpiration occurs when the process reverses from deep groundwaters, goes back up through the trees, and are released into the air as clouds. 60% of clouds inland (after the first rainfall of 100°'° moisture from the sea) are formed by trees The dust that rises off the trees is made up from bits of leaves and pollen, two sorts of bacteria that live on the leaves, and certain oils and waxes that exude off the leaves. At the centre of every raindrop inland (nucleus) is a dust particle off trees More water that comes to earth is condensation rather than rain. One tree can be as much as 20-40 acres of leaf area. Moisture is condensed at night because it is relatively cooler than the air or wind Trees put out negative ions (which attract positive ions, usually dust and pollution) so air around trees is healthy. Need a lot of trees in cities to counteract the positive ions in the air, which cause depression In forest ground water runoff is zero (100% vegetative cover). At 80% vegetative cover; 5°,% runoff; at 60% cover: 35°,'° runoff; at 20°,% cover: 60% runoff. Severe soil loss occurs as vegetative cover is removed TYPES OF FOREST PERMACULTURE L'RE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK • Fuel • Food • Forage • Natural • Structural • Conservation • Shelter; animal barrier 1. Fuel Essentials are that least use should be made of solid fuels; barks and leaves should be returned to the soil or the system will degrade • Liquid fuels: Species yielding sugars for conversion to alcohol (toddy palm, carobs, fruit trees), or directly to fuel (copaiba). These are permanent trees • Solid fuels: Either as cones from nut pines, fallen wood, thinnings, or short-term forest for soil creation (Acacia, Leucaena) • Gas fuels: Coppicing for conversion of biomass via composting for methane collection 2. Food • Orchards, usually intercrop (fruits, nuts) • Use of food trees to support vine crop 3. Forage raqe • Design forage trees into Zones II, III, IV for small livestock, sheep, cattle. Livestock will eat leaves, fruits, nuts off many trees (some need to be fenced off or allowed to grow large before livestock are put in). Trees include: those that drop fruit (mulberry, Coprosma, boxthorn, fig, etc.); nuts (oak chestnut, etc.); pods (Acacia, carob, honey locust); and green leaves (pampas grass, banna grass, tagasaste) 4. Shelterbelt and animal barrier • Windbreak around house and farm site • Select species that provide forage, shelter, and act as a barrier hedge (e.g. pampas grass, Coprosma • Shelter for animals and as protection for crop (can put 20% of ground into shelter without loss of productivity) 5. Structural • Range from bamboo to black walnut, and short to long term cycles. Uses for- • Round pole (poplar, locust) • Sawn timber (long term and old forests) • Industrial use to cellulose yields • Craft uses (rattan, bamboo) 6. Natural and conservation PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HA ; NDBOOK • Forests have an intrinsic worth: beauty, nesting sites for birds, creators of oxygen; clean water supply, rain and moisture, and soil. Prevent erosion, deflect. winds, bring nutrients up from the ground. ESTABLISHMENT OF FOREST • Select species of use (timber forest, fuel, etc) and design for placement (crown bearers and flower bearers on outside of clump; stem and forest inside). Shrubs may last only ten years, pioneers may last only twenty • Pioneer species can establish essential conditions for forest (nitrogen-fixation, nutrient build-up) on poor soils • Important to establish trees in a clump (fed by several drip points if necessary) as these will support one another. Individual plantings tend to get ignored, and are often draughted, wind-pruned, and smothered by grass competition FOREST MANAGEMENT • Thinning • Coppice • Selection • Fire • Standards • Nutrients SECTION 10. WATER IN LANDSCAPE Water as a rare mineral; it is the world's most critical resource. all water (the rest is in the oceans). Of the fresh water: Ice sheets and glaciers

75%
  • Available ground water
11%

(less than 2500' deep)

Deep groundwater & aquifers

1 %

(2500' to 12,500')

  • Lakes & ponds, surface
0.3%
  • Soil moisture, forests
0.06%

Rivers .0.03% Atmosphere .0.035%

  • These are storages we can influence locally (as below)

Fresh water is only 3°,% of Duties of Water: The idea is to use water as many times as possible before it passes through the system. • Duty I. To procreate life (in growing organisms) • Duty 2. To develop productive water systems (aquacuiture). Yield of system increases as life increases. • Duty 3. To develop hydraulic uses for energy production (pumping water, generating electricity and mechanical take-off). In particular we can: • Increase surface storages • Reduce runoff • Decrease evaporation 22 PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK The essential techniques are: • Soil storage (rehabilitation of compressed and/or sealed soils) • Swales (soakage to high groundwater) • Mulch (prevention of evaporation) • Small surface storages (dams and tanks) A. Soil storage: rehabilitation of compressed soils mainly by Keyline methods, including chisel ploughing, for increased soil aeration B. Swales: level grooves to hold water momentarily to keep it from running away rapidly downhill. Water soaks into the ground, and eventually ground slowly charges up with water. Trees planted either side will thrive. Village Homes, Davis, California example of diverting all surface waters into the swales (with 15" rainfall) recharged groundwater supplies to 17 feet in 4 years. C. Mulching: imitation of forest floor - reduces evaporation, prevents erosion, and builds up soil. Easier to achieve in small areas, but can also use 'mulch trees' such as Leucaena, Casuarina, Pines D. Small surface storages: tanks at houses for fresh water supplies; small ponds in gardens, nurseries (for frogs), stock ponds, steep hillside pathends DAMS • Types (saddle, valley, contour, open storage) • Diversion and distribution • Placements T 1.5 FALL SADDLE DAM


DIVERSION ~ DRAIN TO DAM

, EVAPORATION STRATEGY 2 3 Evaporation Strategy: Make three smaller dams (instead of one big dam), one above the other 1. Use from dam 1 until it gets down, then pump into dam 2 and use from there. Then do the same for dam 3. This cuts the evaporation rate 2. Float light concrete on top of dam (use polystyrene pellets instead of gravel) and paint white (which reflects the sun) 3. Pour olive oil or wax (cetyl alcohol) on water to fill the spaces in between the blocks

LIGHT CONCRETE BLOCK 2" THICK 2-3" ACROSS 23 Large roofed tank: used in Australian deserts PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK SILVERED SCREEN , ALUMINIUM DRAIN _ SPINIFLEX / ~ ~.~:4-,,~•;`~1,., , ~ ,'_."1 INLET ET ~ -~--~--=-~..-,.. .~.. PLASTIC WATER COMPLETELY ENCLOSED RAIN PENETRATES THE SPINIFLEX SELF-FILLING TANK BUT PREVENTS EVAPORATION Try to catch, and hold the water as high as possible. Most runoff occurs from sealed surfaces (e.g. roads and tin roof). Yeomans recommends dams should take up 15% of land area. Cater for this water by swaling and keyline ripping, then planting along swale or rip IRRIGATION SYSTEMS • Drip or trickle, especially in dryland situations • Flood irrigation • Sprinklers (not efficient, build up salt in soil) • Under canopy Components of irrigation system • Water source: dams, bores, soaks, runoff, swales, pipelines, creeks, tanks, lake • Energy source: water at head, pressure with pump (electric, fuel, wind, hand or animal) • Distribution network: net and pan, pipes, channels, buckets • Emitter: dripline, sprinkler, bucket Irrigation Rules (Arid regions) ... WATER . • Irrigate under mulch (reduces salt problems and increases irrigation efficiency • Irrigate at dusk or night if possible (put on a timer) • Give long watering every 315 days rather than a little bit every day (increases leaching effect, particularly for salt; and take water down - the tree's roots are bigger in the cool soil: desert strategy) • Allow for leaching WASTE WATER PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK Clearing polluted water (source: Max Plancke Institute. "Contributions to Revitalisation of Waters" by Seidel, Elappel, Grave, Am Waldwinkel 70, D 4150 Krefeld-Hulserberg, W.Germany) Water may contain acids, heavy metals, chlorinated silt and soap which render it unfit for human consumption. The following system is recommended for cleaning polluted water: INLET PIPE FOR FLUSHING


CLEAN WATER OUT SUMP TWO PART VARIOUS BEDS OF PLANTS USED

SAND FILTER AS CLEANERS OF POLLUTION VAT FILLED WITH


OYSTER SHELLS OR

e.g. SCIRPUS FRESHWATER MUSSEL

VALIDUS,PHREAGMITES,WATER SHELLS

HYACINTH,JUNCUS,ALGAE. TANK OF LIVE FRESHWATER MUSSELS Use of waste water Discharged to non-food forests or nut crop, essential oils and bamboo's Greywater: pipe to mulched gardens or by root level drains below paths Use in glasshouse for heat production, or methane production SECTION 11. THE CULTIVATED ECOLOGY ZONE 1: HOME GARDENS Zone 1 needs very careful design, particularly focusing on access and schedules. Starting from kitchen steps: 1. The Herb Spiral: one metre high, contains plants which are constantly used - the herbs: mints, thyme, marjoram, rosemary, sage, basil, etc. 2. The lemon or lime tree: Must be close to the house as it is often used, can stay ripe on the tree a long time 3. The clipping beds for small salads, chives, parsley, mustard greens, corn salad, garden cress 4. The pathside plucking vegetables, long-bearing vegetables for salads and cooking that can be cut, or have leaves pulled for months of yield e.g Swiss chard, Brussels sprouts, celery, kale, dill, capsicums, bunching onions, broccoli, spinach, zucchini, rhubarb 5. Narrow bed plants: Must be able to move easily around the bed for easy harvest. Vegetables include asparagus, peas, beans, carrots, eggplant, lettuce, tomatoes PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK NARROW BED FOR CLIPPED GREENS

SEEDLING BEDS BOXES FOR AND BOXES SLOW SEED AND CUTTINGS

DANDELION __t;*J.o.`b CELERY MIZUNA BRUSSEL Ahlk%2-,.t-E` 7 AT THE KITCHEN DOOR [PLAN] THE PATHSIDE VEGETABLES ,FILL IN 'HOLES' WITH GARLiC,CHIVES, PARSLEY, etc. 6. Broad beds: Here are planted the basic brassicas, lettuce, root crops that are close-spaced, selfmulched, and are block-planted to be cut over a period, e.g. beets, turnips, leeks, kohl rabi, onions, melons, parsnips, cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, pumpkin, globe artichoke, potato 7. Vine and trellis crops e.g. cucumber, pumpkin, passion fruit., jicama, peas and beans PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK

CLIMBERS & VINES Pole beans or lab-lab on a tripod or quadrapod (lab-lab to 3 - 4 m high rIll Treat as for circle garden kitchen AN IDEAL KITCHEN GARDEN LAYOUT FOR SOUTHERN AUSTRALIA TOMATOES TOMATO BED JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE WINDBREAK


Interplant a few marigolds, some basil (to cook with the tomatoes) & dwarf nasturtiums. Plant fava beans as a winter crop or green manure to follow crop


to access OUTSIDE FENCE •Higher outer hedges of Wormwood Pampas Coprosma (wind and grass barriers) INSIDE GARDEN


>?..'~"1'c Weed barners,.'.' Comfrey In garden - low hedges Geranium Rosemary Marigolds Tree onion lemon grass Jerusalem artichoke (just inside fence) GARDEN WEED BARRIERS/HEDGES 27 Laying down the garden PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK Approach 1 : The instant garden a) Sprinkle some manure, nutrients on grounds (or grass) to encourage worms to come up; water well b) Lay down thick wet newspaper, cardboard, carpet underfelt, or carpet (not with plastic backing) c) Cover with thick layer of mulch (straw, old compost, any seedless mulch). Water well d) For transplanting potted plants, uncover mulch, cut through cardboard, and fill area with a couple of handfuls of soil; transplant; and water well e) For large seeds (broad beans simply plant under the mulch and water every day. f) Small seeds: prepare area of soil, plant, water, and lay board over the area remove board and water daily g) Potatoes: simply plant under the mulch Approach 2: Rows, pipes and mulch,(for large area market qarden)

a) Make level beds b) Lay 3/4" pipe down the bed, and drill holes every 4 feet; wrap stocking around hole c) Mulch entire area, even the foot-paths MULCHED PATH ZONE 1 INTENSIVE ANIMALS: • Pigeons • Guinea pigs • Bees • Rabbits • Worms • Quail (can be in glasshouse to control. insects) ZONE 2 ORCHARDS AND SMALL LIVESTOCK Orchard system • Food trees mixed in with non-food trees to confuse pests and encourage pest predators • Nitrogen-fixing trees should also be included, e.g. leucaena, acacia • Combined poultry - ground cover planting For manurial resources • Ground mulch plant species • Barrier plants around trees to compete with grasses • Fire and wind protection needed (select appropriate species) Small livestock for Zone 2 • Bees • Poultry • Ducks • Pigs • Geese PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK Bees • Careful placement to avoid stings, windblast • Mid-season honey (Buddleia, brambles) • Pollen and early honey (willow, rosemary, F.chium) • Late flowers (leatherwood, forest trees) Poultry • Placement. of poultry house and range for best advantage (manures, scratching for insects) • Seed species. Pod and acorn species (lucerne, Coprosma, Lycium, oak, locust, carob) ' • Cover from predators (thorn and shelter) • Choice of breed for situation (light breeds, heavy breeds, colour, behaviour differences) • Greens (comfrey, oxalis, chicory, cleavers) • Vines ( passion fruit ) • Medicines (oxalis, cleavers, dandelion) • Grit/sand/shell • Water • Chicken `tractor' in fallow gardens or fields to remove pests, scratch out seeds, deposit manure, help in fire control (making bare ground) Piqs • Forage, Jerusalem artichoke, comfrey, lucerne • Kitchen and market scraps • Oak/acorns ZONE 3 EXTENSIVE FREE RANGE, WILDLIFE, BROADSCALE SYSTEMS Broadscale systems, forage systems Fukuoka 'no-tillage' system of sequential rotation; sustainable and soil building. *Need to research and experiment with local crop timetables. Use of leguminous trees (Acacia, Leucaena) as pioneer species to improve soils for later orchard plantings. Self-forage for sheep, cattle Water systems development (large impoundments) Windbreak systems Fences and gates Feeding cycle of beef • Annual grasses • Perennial grasses • Carbohydrates (winter) • Winter twigs and bark • Sugar pods (summer) Browsing animals like Coprosma, tagasaste, pampas grass, banna grass (Pennesetum purpureum), leucaena, comfrey, willows, poplars, honey locust and carob pods On intensive tree forage systems, stocking rate can be up to 14 animals per acre, rather than 1 per 20 acres. Watch out for compaction, especially on low country in winter 29 PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK Goats and peacocks are a "no-no" on farms; if must have goats, use Rosa rugosa, roses, blackberries, and boxthorn, also tagasaste Important hook, 'Fertility Pastures and Cover Crops' by Newman Turner. Also 'Herbal Handbook for Farm and Stable' by J. de Barclay Levy, published by Faber & Faber, London RANGELAND MANAGEMENT Well-managed rangeland is very productive, contains wildlife, fodder trees, windbreaks and shelterbelts, herbal pastures, rotated pastures, fenced appropriately. Must not he overstocked URBAN PERMACULTURE (More information on urban strategies for land access in upcoming sections on the 'invisible structures of settlements') • Take over the lawns in urban back and front yards for fruit tree and vegetable production • Use dwarf varieties of fruit trees or espalier prune against fences • Put glasshouse onto sun side of house for vegetables quail can also he kept there • Small animals can he kept if Local ordinances allow it (poultry, quail, guinea pigs, bees, rabbits) • Reduce lead levels by screen planting of non-edibles near roads • Plant in small areas: window-boxes, porches, near door outside, onto roof (if flat) • Oraanise with like-minded people to plant in a local community garden THEMES RAMPANCY (Species which become troublesome by occupying large areas, or occurring in great number). Plants: reasons for rampancy • response to damaged or vacant niches in environment • often species which are efficient & drought-resistant Sl2ecific response: • To grazing: lantana, Petterson's curse, thistle • To fire: Erechthtites, fireweed, bracken • To chemical changes in soil: sedges, sour grasses • To exhaustion of soil: bracken, moss, pioneer species such as blackberry, thistle • To cultivation Dealing with _rampant species with assisted evolution • use succession plants eg groundse! - wattle-gum. 30 PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK • Help succession by slashing/fertilising/planting of suitable species/spreading seeds • Interplant fruit trees and cattle grazing (extensive); goat/pig grazing (local); carpet mulch on small areas (garden), e.g. blackberry/bramble • Slash and interplant, e.g. lantana, especially shade species (pigeon pea, plantain, mango) and vines (chayote, passion fruit) • Rampant species protect and mulch soils, provide bee forage, and protect subsequent evolutions/successions THE FUNCTIONS OF ANIMALS IN THE SYSTEM • Are the mobile elements of the forest • As pollinators, many are specialised for species (bees, wasps, butterflies, moths, flies) • Are seed distributors (ducks: algae and sedges emu: hard seeds; cattle: seeds of sugary pods; dogs and foxes: loquat, grape, lychee; jays: oaks) • Are nutrient sources, e.g. bat, poultry, bird guano • Are soil aerators, e.g. worms, dung beetles • Are regulators: Of forests (weeder species in evolution of forests) • Of other animals (predation to regulate population) PRACTICAL ESTABLISHMENT PROBLEMS (Losses in establishment often greatest cost to client. Design to minimise) • Water (critical factor) needs first priority • Wind shelter may be critical in the case of citrus, avocado, etc. • Nutrients, e.g. phosphates for young pinesi leguminous trees recommended • Soils, better to rehabilitate and lose a year than to persist in poor soils • Species choice, especially in grassland competition e.g. tagasaste, pines, oaks more successful than cultivated fruits • Protection needed from browsers (thorn, fence, stone, electric barriers) SECTION 12. AQUACULTURE AND MARICULTURE See also 'Useful Plants for Wetlands' by Bill Mollison, available from Permaculture Consultancy, Australia) AQUACULTURE • Select species (plant and animals) for pond size • Set up self-forage systems for fish Pond Sizes • Mini-ponds in gardens: use for breeding frogs, water chestnut, watercress, taro, kangkong (water convolvulus) • 300 + square metre ponds: fish, prawns, marron (need fence), eels, bait fish Tilapia, freshwater mussels (must research habits of all - some will eat others if put in same pond) • Plants: various from edge (blueberry) to reeds (water chestnut), emergent (wild rice), marginal (Glyceria), overhanging (mulberry, willow) 3 1 PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK Self-forage systems • Insectory plants at pond edges attract insects (many fall into the water) • Plant heavily around edges to attract nesting and feeding birds - these deposit manures onto the water, which supply detritus feeders. Ducks and fish are an excellent high yielding combination on ponds • Trellis crop and overhanging trees important, e.g. worm on mulberry trees provide manure, their own bodies, and bits of leaf for fish below • Provide insect traps over water for fish-feeding, e.g. a yellow balloon over water will attract grasshoppers; a baited fly-trap will provide hundreds of flies; a black light with a fan will fan insects into the water etc. MARICULTURE Manqroves and estuaries • Mangrove spp. mulch effect will supply detritus feeders • Mangroves hold sand and start off the food chain • Estuarine ponds: controlled for oysters, mullet, flatfish • Plants: intertidal and sub-surface useful plants are zostera, Spartina • Natural food trap systems (as above and use of sea organisms) Tidal areas • Importance of fish traps • Raft cultures: rig nets for fish; rope for mussels; plants and nest sites • Phosphates: platforms, roosts, nests • Rack and substrate cultures (mussels, oyster, algae, sponges, octopus) • Reef cultures: tyres for fish; pipes for crayfish; pots (octopus) Fish convert algae and weeds into usable protein at high levels of efficiency compared with mammals. Molluscs, especially Unio fix nutrients in mud for land cycle, dry crop cycle, and extract calcium SECTION 13. WASTE DISPOSAL AND RECYCLING Water and plants as cleansers of system pollution • Fix excess nutrients: watercress, rushes (e.g. Scirpus validus), water hyacinth • Algae, e.g. Spirulina, desalinates; cleanses; removes radioactives; builds protein from nitrates and nitrites; has a high BTU value; is 68% digestible protein; and has low cellulose Uses of waste water: Sewage lagoons: aeration, weeds, and waterfowl - then goes to fish and finally discharged to non food forest-s, nut crop, essential oil crop, bamboos. See also page 25 of this manual for more information PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK PART 2 THE INVISIBLE STRUCTURES OF SETTLEMENTS 1. RECYCLING 1N THE COMMUNITY (For further information see "Bioregional Organisation" by B.Mollison, and "The Fiscal Economy of a Village Community" by B.Mollison and Reny Slay, available from Permaculture Institute, Australia). ETHICS ' PHILOSOPHY Governs all other endeavours PERMACULTURE' ASSOCIATION Design for shelter, water, food, energy & wilderness FINANCIAL STRATEGIES for community self-funding

BIOREGIONAL

'LEGAL ASSOCIATION COMMERCE STRUCTURES Provides for essential needs & TRADE a) Community of people & the planet; for resource b)Trsuteeship of enables health, educational, exchange assets

recreational and outreach)

services to develop LAND ACCESS STRATEGIES Resource sharing COMMUNICATION Data & information sharing, education A worthwhile goal of any community is to keep the money saved and earned in the community cycling within itself. The only way to do this is to establish financial and economic systems in the community, such as a credit unions, revolving loan funds, or local currency 3 4 PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK Community economics falls into 2 broad categories: The informal economy, e.g. barter. The formal economy, subject to accounting procedures A. THE INFORMAL ECONOMY • Work groups co-operating to accomplish projects • LETSystems Community barter clubs operating on a system of 'debits and credits' for the exchange of goods and services • Purely volunteer labour to the group or community • Informal bartering within the community B. THE FORMAL ECONOMY • Consumer - producer cooperatives • Community savings and loans • Bioregional currency systems • Leasing systems • Earthbank I. Producer - consumer cooperatives A co-operative is a group of people acting together for the benefit of members; principles are: • Open membership • Cooperation Education • Democratic organisation • Strictly limited interest on share capital • Surplus/savings belongs to the members • A producer - consumer cooperative both buy from, and sells to the community. Money is circulated within 2. Community savings and loans Revolving loan funds provide capital to community based groups as well as technical assistance; they also develop networks of lenders and borrowers. Some examples: • S.H.A.R.E. PROGRAMME (Self- Help Economy, Great Barrington, Massachusetts). Non-profit organisation formed to encourage small businesses that are producing necessary goods and services for the community. Works in conjunction with local bank. Members open a SHARE account (6% interest); loans are 10% interest. Borrower must show that proposed business will be a success by: (I) references of past experience & character, and (2) getting support from the community. • C.E.L.T. PROGRAMME (Community Enterprise Loans Trust, New Zealand) Charitable trust which promotes and supports cooperatives; provides advice, runs training sessions, and acts as a savings and loans organisation. The borrowing criteria are: (I) must be a cooperative group, and (2) the cooperative must be willing to work closely and regularly with CELT during the loan so that it has the greatest chance to succeed 3 5 PERN1ACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK • CREDIT UNION Credit unions must have a unifying common bond that links the membership together. They have a purposeful non-profit structure and are owned by the depositors who are shareholders and are organised for the benefit of the members, providing both the normal banking services as well as financial counselling and guidance for members. Credit unions are harder to start, and must comply with governmental regulations by having a common bond (occupational, associational, and community) and by demonstrating the need for starting a new credit union and the support to sustain one 3. Local currencies Already there are many 'currencies' in the form of vouchers, coupons, and tickets. These can be traded for goods and services. On a community level, these vouchers or currency can be based on a real asset of the community, e.g. wood, clean water, a community services council could print, back up, and handle the currency, which can be exchanged for most goods and services in the area. The community can then start community projects with the money. Businesses starting up can pre-sell their services in order to get start-up capital 4. Earthbank The Earthbank Society in Australia and Earthbank Association in U.S.A. exist to gather data on current alternative economic and financial strategies, and to assist in setting up ethical financial systems in the region. Local earthbank societies must be started in every bioregion 5. Leasing Systems Any community, group or individual can run a leasing service for others. A group may get together to purchase an item (i.e. vehicle, photocopier, mulch chipper) for lease to the general community (i.e. by the kilometre, piece, or hour). The charge applied must pay for purchase, maintenance and replacement costs (within a period of 2-5 years, depending on the item purchased) LAND ACCESS AND URBAN SYSTEMS • Oxfam (land-lease) system • Land trusts and trusteeship • Farm and garden clubs • Farm-link system • Commonworks Oxfam land-lease system A regional office is needed to link landless people in the city with those (usually pensioners) who have a large lot or back-yard that needs tending. Regional office prepares a standard lease specifying rental (if any), goods exchange, length and type of lease, and access. Office should make a small service charge for this and many other urban services (the function of a bioregional office is to serve the community) PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK City Farms Very popular in the U.K. - Associations lease or are given land, and a management group is appointed. On this land the following activities are promoted: • Demonstration gardens/allotment gardens • Domestic animals kept; used as demonstrateJon and breeding stock - Recycling centre for equipment, building materials • Family/community meetings and picnics • Tool rental and access • Gleaning operations (see below) • Plant nursery • Seed, book, plant, & general retail sales • Seminars, demonstration, training programmes, educational outreach City as Farm: Gleaning Surplus city product is collected, sorted, packaged (if necessary), and retailed. Example is of man in Melbourne who makes a living collecting and selling chestnuts from backyards. Gleaning operations can even take place in country areas near the city for distribution to community groups, the poor, the general public etc. Another strategy is to provide a service (mowing, pest control, manuring, fire control) by ranging sheep, duck or geese flocks in city backyards or lots. Farm Link Appropriate to high-rise or rental families in an urban area. 15 - 20 nearby families link to one farm in the nearby country, thus providing a farmer with income and themselves with fresh, inexpensive fruits and vegetables, wheat and meats (depending on the arrangements made with the farmer). The families should meet quarterly (or have a representative do so) with the farmer to make seasonal choices. As the link grows, the system can also accommodate: • Holidays on the farm • Educational workshops • City (family) help on the farm at busy periods Farm and Garden Clubs These suit families with some capital to invest as shares, with annual membership dues. A farm is purchased by the club or association, and a manager (if necessary) is appointed. Depending on the aims of the association, the farm can be used for a variety of purposes: food growing, holiday retreat, woodlot and forest establishment, fishing, Commonworks A farm held by a land trust near the city arranges a series of special leases for a variety of purposes and businesses (forestry, livestock, teaching, crafts, dairy, brickworks, and other complex enterprises). Some of these are land (area) leases; others activity leases. 10% net profit is returned to the Commonwork Fund for land to be developed for further leases. One such farm in Kent, U.K. demonstrates the best model of such farm use at the highest level. Bore Place, Chiddingstone, Edenbridge Kent TNR 7AR.) 37 Trusteeships and land trusts PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK In order to acquire land (without purchasing it) for community or public purposes, must set up a public charitable or non-profit trust (more information follows in other section). Once the trust is formed, it is in a position to advertise for, and receive, gifts of land and funds LEGAL FORMS • Discretionary trusts • Charitable trusts • Subscription trusts ( investment trust) Discretionary Trust Conducts affairs as any normal business; only difference is that it does not keep any profit. but rather distributes it to beneficiaries. The company does not pay tax if it distributes its income, but the beneficiaries are liable for personal tax. Trust has a trust deed (statement of purpose). Board of Directors, Secretary, meeting, and can own business names. (In the case of McAlistair Trading Trust, for example, it owns the business names 'Perm aculture Consultancy' and 'Tagari Publications' - see below for schematic drawing) Members may lease land from the Institute PERMACULTURE INSTITUTE REAL PROPERTY OFTHE INSTITUTE TAGARI (unincorporated association) Members may act as directors of trustee companies


POLITICAL PARTIES • Building • Services (accounting, typing, computer) • Repair • Craft • Trade (retail) PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK ENERGY COSTS SALARIES

I ! Clusters



\\ UNION VILLAGE \ v, \~ BANK 00 % VILLAGE SERVICES 45%

(Schools, research, hospitals) TAXATION & CONS


CASH RESERVES SALES TRADE & TAXATION & __ INVENTORY % I CONSUMPTION SALARIES

SCHEMATIC OF CAPITAL FLOW WITHIN AND WITHOUT A VILLAGE The aim is to keep as much money as can be usefully and productively used within the system; thus to reduce taxation, consumption of outside resources, energy costs, and outside investment, and to return resources to income and consumer products within the village. Consumption is reduced by lifestyle change, vehicle sharing etc. Taxation is reduced by legal strategies. Energy by technological strategies and conservation. Trade by developing local resources. Little of this is possible unless investment, via the village bank, is controlled by the village.

45% sters REINVESTMENT & INVENTORY 'OUTSIDE' INVESTMENT DIVIDENDS & REPAYMENTS ENERGY COSTS VILLAGE FISCAL BOUNDARY PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK Village Homes Davis, California • Stores all surplus storm-water into swales for groundwater recharge • All buildings face the sun and contain solar devices • Streets narrow with few parking spaces (but enough) to cut down on heat build-up from streets • Many bicycle paths throughout the community • Common spaces for recreation; lots smaller than usual • Privacy on street-side (usually fenced) with shared 'public' backyards, usually containing gardens and fruit trees • Common food-growing areas, particularly grapes, fruit trees, jujubes • 10% of houses allocated for low-income families (who apparently do most of the planting and even have an on-site tortilla business) COMMERCE • Co-operatives • What makes a small business successful • Strategies applicable to small businesses 1. co-operatives Cooperatives are formed to help in community revitalisation and worker productivity and contentment. Decentralised, worker owned, and (usually) socially conscious, co-ops are a useful alternative to single ownership businesses. Famous example is of the Mondragon Cooperatives in the Basque region of Spain, where 10% of profits are returned to the community for public services, a co-operatively run bank oversees businesses and gets them started; and there are no redundancies - workers are retrained and new jobs found in other expanding cooperative endeavours 2. Small Business Strategies (including for co-ops) • Presales and pledges: Can start a business off. Books are often "pre-sold" in order to pay for printing costs. One example of a restaurant (Zoo-Zoos) printing food vouchers redeemable up to a year (discount on a meal) to buy out the original owner. Individuals contemplating a small business should ask the people in the community whether they would buy his/her goods or services • Cooperative catalogue: Individuals and businesses can get together to put out a catalogue of all their goods and services. This has been done in the U.S. in 'The Catalogue of Wonderful Things' (Crafts) with each product and address given individually. Can also try the idea of a co-operative 'label' and the filling of orders through a co-op business set up for such a purpose Loans: should receive loans from a local S.H.A.R.E. or C.E.L.T. group; there are even government agencies that make low interest loans to cooperatives (which must demonstrate viability) The Successful Small Business PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK • Start small; learn how to run a business • Start a business in an area in which you are interested (not which you think will make money • Gain a good reputation for service and durability • Action: once decision is made, effort is made quickly to adopt it • Belief in a set of values for the company, often restated • Respect and encouragement of co-ownership by staff • Use a simple organisational structure, with 'management' in close contact with staff & customers • Look ahead HOW PERMACULTURE TRAINEES OPERATE What Next? Graduates of a permaculture design course are designated as "trainee permaculture designers: and must complete at least 2 years work in any permaculture field (as designated below). Evidence of work must accompany written submission, usually an accompanying letter signed by (1) your initial permaculture design course teacher(s); (2) a permaculture designer who has received a Diploma from the PC Institute(s); or (3) a reputable, independent person known by both designer and the Institute A Diploma of Permaculture Design shall be issued in the following fields (check Permaculture Journal 19 page 13 for fuller description): Site design Media and communications Site development Education Administration Trusteeship System establishment and implementation Manufacturing Community development Finance Research Diplomas are issued by the continental Permaculture Institutes (see references). Higher degrees may be obtained: contact Bill Mollison at Permaculture Institute, Australia. All design course graduates should maintain a subscription to the Permaculture Journal to keep abreast of news and changes Report writing and client needs 1. Clear addresses: client home and business addresses, your own address, client's property location 2. Client needs and resources: lifestyle; future development; number of people and form of involvement; expenditure; other resources, skills, interests 3. General property description: size, titles, sub-divisions; aspects, orientations, slopes; present vegetation; soils, water, access; areas defined (planning units). Attached maps 42 PERMACULTURE DES IGN COURSE H,4 I dDS0 4. Detail of areas: e.g. Zone 1: house and yard design, intensive culture; Zone 2: cultivation, animals; Zone 3: forest; Zone 4: shaded slopes, water, etc. 5. General themes affecting the site, e.g. fire, marketing possibilities, mosquito control, aquaculture, and so on 6. Include useful references: resource people, other clients, books & publications, government assistance, financial help, organisations 7. Documentation, e.g. plant lists, details of retrofits, layouts of areas (designer may need illustration assistance) COMMON ERRORS Assumption of client knowledge of all facets of report Lack of detail sketches Depersonalised approach Recommendation of difficult technologies Resources not noted or explained Generalities, e.g. "suitable plants" Poor patterning No management date Priorities not stressed Recommending illegal or impossible to get species For methodologies of design, see page 3 of this handbook Creating work Find a niche and fill it! Start a permaculture association or consultancy in your area (combine it with earthbank or bioregional services) Start to teach and design, even if its free at first. Research and assemble data for other designers Cooperate with co-designers to form team Offer services and help set up community social services, e.g. city farms, food co-ops, teaching and demonstration areas for permaculture, etc. Permaculture Continental Institutes PERMACULTURE DESIGN COURSE HANDBOOK Permaculture Institute of Australia PO Box 96 Stanley Tasmania 7331 (move to New South Wales in 1986). Keeps register of permaculture design course graduates, awards diplomas, reviews teaching curricula, awards higher degrees. Also holds property for preservation and demonstration purposes. Permaculture Institute of North America 6488 South Maxwelton Road C!inton Washington 98236. Has same function as the above for the U.S. Also distributes the 'Permaculture Journal' and co-ordinates educational programmes. Permaculture Institute of Berlin Alvaterstrasse 14d 1000 Berlin 38 Germany. Currently serves the above functions for Europe. Permaculture Design Courses Are announced by the 'Permaculture Journal' and by the above continental instituters. ALSO in the USA, contact American Permaculture Training Programmes (APT) Dan Hemenway PO Box 202 Orange Massachusetts 01230. APT programmes are intended to build the skills and knowledge of those who have taken the pc design course; an apprenticeship lasts 1-4 years. Books and Journals (critical References) 'Permaculture One' Molli-,on and Holmgren 1978 'Permaculture Two' Mollison Tagari 'Water For Every Farm' P.A.Yeomans 1956 and 'The Keyline Plan' (Yeomans) 1954. Reprinted by Second Back Row Press PO Box 43 Leura New South Wales 2781 'One Straw Revolution M. Fukuoka 1978 Rodale Press Emmaus Pennsylvania 'Tree Crops: A Permanent Agriculture' J. Russell Smith 1950 C.--vin-Adair New York 'An Agricultural Testament' Sir Albert Howard 1943 Oxford University Press 'Principals of Environmental Scienc°' K. Watt McGravr and Hill New York 1973 'Fertility Pastures' N. Turner 1955 Bargyla Rateaver 'A Pattern Language' Christopher Alexander et al Oxford University Press (Sae also references in the permaculture books) 'The IPM Practitioner' (Integrated Pest Management newsletter) Bio Integral Resource Centre Box 7414 Berkley California 94707. For :"e serious student of IPM - excellent newsletter. Subscriptions: $25/year ($18 students). Add $5 surface Postage for overseas subs. Published 11 times a ;ear. EARTHBANK Eorthhank Society Australia PO Box 7 1 Bowral New South Wales 2576. Earthbank act;-:tic,- r--Ported in the Permaculture Journal'. Association ,,ssoc:ation USA PG Box 87 Clinton Washington 98236; publishes 46

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